Citrine is a popular gem, often purchased in an earthy, deep, brownish or reddish orange. Iron is responsible for its yellow-to-orange color. Citrine is also known to remain relatively affordable, even with its larger sizes and finer gems. Along with topaz, citrine is a birthstone for November and the gem for the 13th and 23rd anniversaries.
Spinel comes in red, pink, purple and blue. Over the past few centuries, many emperors and monarchs confused red spinel for ruby. For example, the famous 14th century Black Prince’s Ruby placed on the British Imperial Crown is actually spinel, not ruby as the name suggests. Nevertheless, because of its beauty and stark similarities to ruby and sapphire, the gem has traditionally been treasured. Like diamonds, the gem is singly refractive.